Saving time by repeating history

Getting work done faster on the command line is one of the never changing goals of Unix sysadmins. And one way to do this is to find easy ways to reuse commands that you have entered previously – particularly if those commands are complex or tricky to remember. Some of the ways we do this include putting the commands in scripts and turning them into aliases. Another way is to reissue commands that you have entered recently by pulling them from your command history and reusing them with or without changes.

 

The easiest and most intuitive way to reissue commands is by using the up and down arrows on your keyboard to scroll through previously entered commands. How far back you can scroll will depend on the size of your history buffer. Most people set their history buffers to hold something between 100 and 1,000 commands but some go way beyond that. Hitting the up arrow 732 times might try your patience, but there are are fortunately easy ways to get what you need without wearing out your finger tip! To make this post a little easier to follow, I’m using a modest HISTSIZE setting. You can view your current history queue size using the command shown below

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Firefox blocks websites with vulnerable encryption keys

To protect users from cryptographic attacks that can compromise secure web connections, the popular Firefox browser will block access to HTTPS servers that use weak Diffie-Hellman keys.

Diffie-Hellman is a key exchange protocol that is slowly replacing the widely used RSA key agreement for the TLS  (Transport Layer Security) protocol. Unlike RSA, Diffie-Hellman can be used with TLS’s ephemeral modes, which provide forward secrecy — a property that prevents the decryption of previously captured traffic if the key is cracked at a later time.

However, in May 2015, a team of researchers devised a downgrade attack that could compromise the encryption connection between browsers and servers if those servers supported DHE_EXPORT, a version of Diffie-Hellman key exchange imposed on exported cryptographic systems by the National Security Agency in the 1990s and which limited the key size to 512 bits. In May 2015 around 7 percent of websites on the internet were vulnerable to the attack, which was dubbed LogJam.

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Firefox blocks websites with vulnerable encryption keys

To protect users from cryptographic attacks that can compromise secure web connections, the popular Firefox browser will block access to HTTPS servers that use weak Diffie-Hellman keys.

Diffie-Hellman is a key exchange protocol that is slowly replacing the widely used RSA key agreement for the TLS  (Transport Layer Security) protocol. Unlike RSA, Diffie-Hellman can be used with TLS’s ephemeral modes, which provide forward secrecy — a property that prevents the decryption of previously captured traffic if the key is cracked at a later time.

However, in May 2015 a team of researchers devised a downgrade attack that could compromise the encryption connection between browsers and servers if those servers supported DHE_EXPORT, a version of Diffie-Hellman key exchange imposed on exported cryptographic systems by the U.S. National Security Agency in the 1990s and which limited the key size to 512 bits. In May 2015 around 7 percent of websites on the internet were vulnerable to the attack, which was dubbed LogJam.

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Microsoft combines Cortana, Bing, with Microsoft Research to accelerate new features

Microsoft took the unusual step of combining its Bing and Cortana product teams with Microsoft Research, in a bid to accelerate innovation for both the search engine and the digital assistant.

The move on Thursday was part of a broader reorganization that saw Microsoft split its Applications and Services Group, which also included Microsoft’s Office applications, into two separate organizations. Office applications will form their own group.

Though Microsoft has asked researchers to work on projects that could eventually be commercialized, combining teams that work on active products, such as Cortana and Bing, with the future-facing teams that comprise Microsoft Research, is unique within Microsoft. Together, Bing and Cortana, plus Microsoft’s Information Platform and Ambient Computing and Robotics teams, will form the Microsoft AI and Research Group. All told, the group will include more than 5,000 computer scientists and engineers, Microsoft said.

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